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Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Web Site. The Bachelor of Education (Secondary Education: Science) and Bachelor of Science combined course includes significant professional experience placements in schools. The placements begin in the third year of the course and the amount of responsibility and duration of the placements progressively increases until the final placement, in which students are competent to teach under minimal supervision.

The journals of “Az-buki” publishing house include scientific texts in Bulgarian and English, research papers and critiques of academic scientists and teachers. They can be used in research papers for publishing, they are mandatory for the purposes of educational qualifications and have been ordered almost 31 000 times including abroad. The oldest journals have history of almost 100 years since the first date of publication.

One of the students featured in Science Fair is Kashfia Rahman, a soft-spoken girl at a sports-obsessed school in Brookings, South Dakota, who ends up winning first place in her category at the 2017 ISEF for her findings on the role of repeated acts of risky behaviors in blunting emotional and cognitive functions in adolescence—a project inspired by her surroundings in Brookings, where teen drug and alcohol abuse is common. Toward the beginning, Rahman is shown roaming her school’s campus and pointing to all the cabinets filled with frivolous trophies won by its less-than-impressive sports teams. A few scenes later, the filmmakers approach various groups of students hanging out in places like the cafeteria or the weight room—no one had ever heard of Rahman, even though she’d placed third in the ISEF the year before.

The developmental literature related to this fundamental aspect of scientific reasoning is more complex, with some studies in support of the Benchmarks stance and some studies suggesting greater competence. For example, Kuhn, Amsel, and ‘Loughlin (1988) conclude that, in the preadolescent, theory and evidence meld into a single representation as ‘the way things are’” (p. 221), whereas the research of Sodian, Zaitchek, and Carey (1991) indicates that, in some form and under some conditions, even preschoolers can make this distinction and reason accordingly.

The format of shared mental training and pre-professional training consistently dominated the curriculum from its inception to now. However, the movement to incorporate a humanistic approach, such as inclusion of the arts (S.T.E.A.M.) , science, technology, society and environment education is growing and being implemented more broadly in the late 20th century (Aikenhead, 1994). Reports by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), including Project 2061, and by the National Committee on Science Education Standards and Assessment detail goals for science education that link classroom science to practical applications and societal implications.