AAAS programs conduct educational research and development, provide resources for the classroom and other science learning settings and offer professional development for teachers. The main informational source about higher education in Ukraine for foreign students is Ukrainian State Center for International Education of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. Center is only one official state platform, which is engaged into preparation of foreign students for study in Ukraine. a college of further education providing courses in a range of practical subjects, such as information technology, applied sciences, engineering, agriculture, and secretarial skills.
indicates that students do not go through general stages of cognitive development, and there are no critical periods” for learning particular aspects of science. Rather, cognitive capacities directly related to scientific practice usually do not fully develop in and of themselves apart from instruction, even in older children or adults. These capacities need to be nurtured, sustained, and elaborated in supportive learning environments that provide effective scaffolding and targeted as important through assessment practices.
In their introduction, Bodard and Romanello stress our collective responsibility as scholars of the classics to communicate to the wider public the importance of the outcomes of our work. In their view, classicists need to engage students in new and stimulating ways that keep pace with the rapid development of technologies offered by the world outside academia, urging that we must find ways of applying their techniques, even if seemingly distant from our subject, to resolve questions and problems that are still unanswered and unsolved. The book is divided into three main sections: 1) Teaching, 2) Knowledge Exchange, and 3) Public Engagement, each reflecting the editors’ overarching theme of the need for open access to digital resources.
Programs for preparing science teachers in the United States are numerous-numbering about 1,250. These programs vary considerably, though most require a major in one discipline of science and a strong supporting area. The professional sequence varies greatly with smaller programs unable to maintain a faculty with expertise in science education per se. The programs generally consist of half the credits in science, a quarter in education, and a quarter in liberal arts requirements. In the 1990s the quantity of preparation in science and in science education increased-often making it difficult to complete programs as part of a four-year bachelor’s degree program. Fifth-year programs that include more time spent in schools with direct experience with students are becoming the norm.
A persistent problem has been the lack of articulation between pre-and in-service science teacher education. NSF support for in-service teacher education from 1960 to 1975 focused on updating science preparation in an attempt to narrow the gap. In fact, NSF efforts often tended to deepen the problem. The NSF assumed that science teachers needed only more and better science backgrounds and the NSF model was simply one of giving teachers current science information, which they were to transmit directly to their students. What was needed was a set of intellectual tools with which teachers could evaluate the instruction they provided.