Center For Research In Mathematics And Science Education

The Education Encyclopedia is a resource for professional educators as well as students in an education program. Although inquiry and the scientific method are integral to science education and practice, every decision we make is based on these processes. Natural human curiosity and necessity lead to asking questions (What is the problem?), constructing a hypothesis (How do I solve it?), testing it with evidence and evaluating the result (Did the solution work?), and making future decisions based on that result.

The International Journal of Research in Education and Science (IJRES) is a peer-reviewed and online free journal. The IJRES is published twice a year in January and July. The manuscripts which are accepted for publication in the IJRES before January are published in the winter manuscripts which are accepted for publication in the IJRES before July are published in the summer issue.

In the international arena, the United States ranks low among developed countries with respect to teachers’ salaries relative to the salaries of other college-educated workers. For primary school teachers, the U.S. ranking is 20th of 23 countries. For lower and upper secondary school teachers, the United States is 21st of 23 countries. E. 1981. What Research Says to the Science Teacher. Washington, DC: National Science Teachers Association.

The strands of scientific proficiency lay out broad learning goals for students. They address the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must eventually acquire to be considered fully proficient in science. They are also a means to that end: they are practices that students need to participate in and become fluent with in order to develop proficiency.

These strands of scientific proficiency represent learning goals for students as well as providing a broad framework for curriculum design. They address the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must eventually acquire to be considered fully proficient in science. They are also a means to that end: they are practices that students need to participate in and become fluent with in order to develop proficiency. Evidence to date indicates that in the process of achieving proficiency in science, the four strands are intertwined, so that advances in one strand support and advance those in another.