About this journal. The Polish authorities presented and discussed with the PSF panel of experts the strengths and weaknesses of the Polish R&I system and the rationale behind the PSF Peer Review which will form an important background for the forthcoming reforms of Higher Education and Science. The reforms will be based on three pillars proposed in the new Strategy for Higher Education and Science: Constitution for Science, Innovations for the economy, and Science for You The operational recommendations tackling such issues as models of higher education institutions and their evaluation, career development of researchers, links between the higher education sector and the other actors of the innovation system as well as the internationalisation of the science and higher education sectors, will be released by the PSF panel in September 2017.
Viewing the science classroom as a scientific community akin to communities in professional science is advantageous (although K-8 students are clearly not engaged in professional science). Science advances in large part through interactions among members of research communities as they test new ideas, solicit and provide feedback, articulate and evaluate emerging explanations, develop shared representations and models, and reach consensus. Likewise, participation in scientific practices in the classroom helps students advance their understanding of scientific argumentation and explanations; engage in the construction of scientific evidence, representations, and models; and reflect on how scientific knowledge is constructed.
To understand science, one must use science and do so in a manner that reflects the values of scientific practice. Participation is premised on a view that science and scientific knowledge are valuable and interesting, seeing oneself as an effective learner and participant in science, and the belief that steady effort in understanding science pays off. These attitudes toward science and science learning develop as a consequence of students’ experience of educational, social, and cultural environments. The educational environment in particular is an important influence on how students view themselves as science learners and whether they feel supported to participate fully in the scientific community of the classroom.
Informal science education is the science teaching and learning that occurs outside of the formal school curriculum in places such as museums, the media, and community-based programs. The National Science Teachers Association has created a position statement 49 on Informal Science Education to define and encourage science learning in many contexts and throughout the lifespan. Research in informal science education is funded in the United States by the National Science Foundation. 50 The Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education (CAISE) 51 provides resources for the informal science education community.
highly developed and well-tested theories. These theories, in turn, can explain bodies of data and predict outcomes of experiments. They are also tools for further development of the subject. An important component of science is the knowledge of the limitations of current theories, that is, an understanding of those aspects of a theory that are well tested and hence are well established, and of those aspects that are not well tested and hence are provisional and likely to be modified as new empirical evidence is acquired.