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AAAS programs conduct educational research and development, provide resources for the classroom and other science learning settings and offer professional development for teachers. Opportunities for teachers to engage in professional learning and development can have a big impact on student learning. Students with good teachers can make progress twice as fast as those without. According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), job opportunities for post-secondary teachers were expected to grow by 19% from 2012 to 2022 (). In May 2014, post-secondary teachers who taught education-related subjects earned a mean annual income of $65,180, according to the BLS.

The developmental literature related to this fundamental aspect of scientific reasoning is more complex, with some studies in support of the Benchmarks stance and some studies suggesting greater competence. For example, Kuhn, Amsel, and ‘Loughlin (1988) conclude that, in the preadolescent, theory and evidence meld into a single representation as ‘the way things are’” (p. 221), whereas the research of Sodian, Zaitchek, and Carey (1991) indicates that, in some form and under some conditions, even preschoolers can make this distinction and reason accordingly.

the Benchmarks for Science Literacy, and multiple state standards documents. Teachers are held accountable to particular state and local requirements. It is not the role of this report to specify a list of content to be taught. However, it is important to note that what this report says about science learning always assumes that there is a strong basis of factual knowledge and conceptual development in the science curriculum, and that the goal of any methodology for teaching is to facilitate student learning and understanding of this content, as well as developing their skills in, and understanding of, the methods of scientific observation, experimentation, modeling, and analysis.

9. Conducting mathematic and scientific workshops for high school students. 8. Participated the study of the International Association for the Evaluation of Education Achievement (IEA). Using the four goals for school science to prepare teachers to internalize the National Science Education Standards, including experiencing science as: an investigation of natural phenomena, a means for making sound personal decisions, an aid in public discussion and debate of current issues, and a means of increasing economic productivity.

The strands of scientific proficiency lay out broad learning goals for students. They address the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must eventually acquire to be considered fully proficient in science. They are also a means to that end: they are practices that students need to participate in and become fluent with in order to develop proficiency.