Ubiquity Press

The Education Encyclopedia is a resource for professional educators as well as students in an education program. The process by which scientific theories are developed and the form that those theories take differ from one domain of science to another, but all sciences share certain common features at the core of their problem-solving and inquiry approaches. Chief among these is the attitude that data and evidence hold a primary position in deciding any issue. Thus, when well-established data, from experiment or observation, conflict with a theory or hypothesis, then that idea must be modified or abandoned and other explanations must be sought that can incorporate or take account of the new evidence. This also means that models, theories, and hypotheses are valued to the extent that they make testable (or in principle testable) precise predictions for as yet unmeasured or unobserved effects; provide a coherent conceptual framework that is consistent with a body of facts that are currently known; and offer suggestions of new paths for further study.

A second major problem with assuming children’s learning will unfold without support is that what children are capable of doing without instruction may lag considerably behind what they are capable of doing with effective instruction. Further clouding the picture is that research on cognitive development may not be helpful in illuminating how instruction can advance children’s knowledge and skill. Often, studies in developmental psychology do not have an instructional component and therefore may be more informative about starting points than about children’s potential for developing scientific proficiency under effective instructional conditions.

A college degree opens windows of opportunity, but paying for a college education can be costly. Public community colleges with open admissions are relatively inexpensive when compared to highly selective private universities, but tuition and fees can add up quickly at any school. 4. Conduct workshops or activities for mathematics and science teachers, which provide opportunities for innovation of teaching and learning.

Middle school philosophy calls for teams of teachers (from all facets of the curriculum) to work with a given set of middle school students and to unify and relate all study for those students. Project 2061, formulated in the late twentieth century, is a reform project that ties the curriculum together, especially science, mathematics, technology, and social studies.

Quality of higher education is a dynamic category that involves a need for constant improvement of all the processes and their outcomes. It is a guiding force of the overall social development, a force that instigates national economic development and functions as a base for successful individual careers. Learning in museums and science centers takes place in a wider world context which begins with the learner’s prior experience, takes in the interactive opportunities and—very importantly—the related programming activities provided by the center. Teachers as well as students learn from this process.